This glossary was created in order to support efficient communication, as efficiency can only be achieved if everyone knows what the words and phrases really mean, and if everyone uses them consistently.

This glossary will constantly expand. Do you miss something? If so, what is it?

Actuality Actuality comes from Latin “actualitas” which means “anything which is currently happening”. In connection with radio or TV it means the sound of something actually happening, e.g. people speaking.
Africa Africa is one of the continents where eMM provides media coverage (see our coverage map).
Origin of the word "Africa": it is not entirely clear from which word it is derived, but all versions sound very logical. "Africa" means "sunny", "dust" or "not cold". Perhaps Africa is also the name of a native tribe. Originally, only the northern part of the continent - approximately where today is Tunisia - was called Africa.
Ad Monitoring is an effective solution to track advertisements worldwide, not only to ensure proper broadcasting times, but also for competitive advertisement analysis and business performance management / cost control.
Alert An alert is an alarm or a warning, that notifies of approaching danger or action, like a flashing red light prepares you for action as it notifies you of trouble ahead.
AMEC AMEC – The International Association for Measurement and Evaluation of Communication is the global trade body and professional institute for agencies and practitioners who provide media measurement, evaluation and communication research.
(Source:, June 13, 2012)
America America is one of the continents where eMM provides media coverage (see our coverage map).
Origin of the word "America": some people say that the two Americas should be treated as two different continents, because both regions are so different. But: The land masses are connected - even if only by a narrow land bridge in the middle of the continent. The name America comes from the first name of the Italian Amerigo Vespucci. The discoverer of America, Christopher Columbus had even believed that he had circled the globe once and had arrived on the other side in India again. That's why he called the natives Indians. Vespucci has recognized, however, that the country is not India, but a completely new, hitherto completely unknown part of the world. Although Amerigo Vespucci was a man, he named the country a female name, because all the other continents - ie Europe, Africa and Asia - already had female names.
Asia Asia is one of the continents where eMM provides media coverage (see our coverage map).
Origin of the word "Asia": Asia is the largest continent and has the most inhabitants. Actually Asia and Europe formed a common continent - Eurasia. The word continent means "the continuous land" and Europe and Asia have a common ground plane. But people know that not so long and that's why both regions are treated separately. The word "Asia" means "sunrise" or "East". As the sun rises over Asia, it is called "Orient". But this only works when you look from Europe. When you look from Japan, the sun does not rise at all over Asia, but across America!
Audio Clip Audio clips are short clips of audio files, usually part of a longer recording. With eMM you can edit and download audio clips and video clips in DVD quality (see Features - Edit Clips).
Australia Australia is one of the continents where eMM provides media coverage (see our coverage map).
Origin of the word "Australia": it means "southern country". It is the name for a whole continent, and also the name for the country.
Automated Media Monitoring New technologies have allowed to automate the process of capturing radio and TV broadcasts: real-time processing, 24/7 monitoring and automated keyword alerting just to name a few improvements. While many media monitoring agencies still offer the service of trained professionals to review and deliver results overnight, automated media monitoring delivers all the relevant news via e-mail as they break. (Request our
White Paper: Comparison of Human vs. Automated Media Monitoring)

When monitoring a radio or TV station, the first step in analyzing the data is to segment it according to acoustic characteristics. Is it a person speaking, or a song? All audio segments where humans speak run through speech recognition software to deliver the transcript of what has been said. eMM offers the service of different search options, matching our client's needs to search for relevant content within the text. Moreover the automated transcript together with the video or audio clip can then be passed on via e-mail for further usage (see Features - Automated Alerts).

AVE advertising value equivalence; a discredited approach to gauging the value of public relations (or media relations more precisely). See Barcelona Principles.
(Source:, June 13, 2012)
Barcelona Principles A series of statements to guide best practice in PR measurement that were endorsed after a vote of global delegates at the AMEC European Measurement Summit in 2010:
  • Goal setting and measurement are fundamental aspects of any PR programmes.
  • Media measurement requires quantity and quality – cuttings in themselves are not enough.
  • Advertising Value Equivalents (AVEs) do not measure the value of PR and do not inform future activity.
  • Social media can and should be measured. Measuring outcomes is preferred to measuring media results.
  • Business results can and should be measured where possible.
  • Transparency and Replicability are paramount to sound measurement
(Source:, June 13, 2012)
Broadcast A broadcast is a message that is transmitted by radio or television.
To broadcast means to transmit a radio or television program electronically by radio or TV for public or general use.
Broadcast Monitoring Service eMM's Broadcast Monitoring automatically monitors and indexes multiple live broadcast content feeds for instant visibility of breaking news in real time (typically on average 25-30 seconds after broadcast). Over the past few years, the number of TV and radio channels delivering content from many countries in many languages has notably expanded. eMM uses digital sources, satellite and cable to deliver capabilities to find what's being said and shown about your business, your company, brands, people and issues; yours and those of your competitors.
Channel A radio/TV channel is a physical or virtual channel over which a radio/TV station or radio/TV network is distributed. A channel is used to convey an information signal, for example a digital bit stream, from one or several senders (or transmitters) to one or several receivers.
Coverage The amount or extent to which something is covered. In connection to media, speaking about “Media Coverage” means media from across the countries – and around the world. Coverage reflects the ability to view, not the actual viewing (see our coverage map).
Clip (audio clip, video clip) a short segment cut from video or audio. A clip is usually a short part of a longer recording. With eMM you can edit and download video clips in DVD quality (see Features - Edit Clips).
DMA Regions DMA (Designated Market Area) regions are the geographic areas in the United States in which local television viewing is measured by The Nielsen Company. The DMA data are essential for any marketer, researcher, or organization seeking to utilize standardized geographic areas within their business.
(Source:, April 2013)
Download a copy of a document or other digital file is pulled from a web server to the user's Internet connected device. When a user accesses a web page, it's actually downloaded from a web server to the user's browser, but this isn't usually what's meant when the word is invoked.
(Source:, June 13, 2012)
Edit Editing is the act of viewing, listening and cutting video or audio in order to make the story perfect. To prepare raw material - such as text or recorded vision - for publication or broadcast, checking aspects such as accuracy, spelling, grammar, style, clarity etc is important.
eMedia Monitor eMedia Monitor is an Austrian technology company which has become a market leader in the field of global radio and TV monitoring. Since 2007 eMM has provided international media monitoring services which have been continuously improved and extended over the years. eMM has achieved sustained growth and has gained outstanding market recognition and approval. Our clients appreciate being able to analyse high-value broadcast media content in real time and in an internationally standardized system, in order to measure the success of their PR activities in radio and TV as well as for crisis management.
Click here to view eMM's short video.
EPG (Electronic Program Guide) This is an interactive program guide displaying continuously the current and upcoming radio or TV program. Continuously updated menus display broadcast programming or scheduling information for current and upcoming programs.
Europe Europe is one of the continents where eMM provides media coverage (see our coverage map).
Origin of the word "Europe": Europa was the name of a princess. The Greek god Zeus fell head over heels in love with her. He transformed himself into a beautiful white bull and carried her off to an island. In honor of the princess Zeus named the whole continent after her - Europe. The kidnapping is seen on the Greek two-euro coins. The name Europe means "woman with the broad view" or "setting of the sun" or "dark" and "evening". Therefore Europe is called "the West". In contrast, there is a continent that is called "Orient": Asia.
Evaluation the making of a judgement about the amount, number, or value of something. It is the structured interpretation and giving of meaning to predicted or actual impact of proposals or results. Evaluation can be formative (taking place during the development of a concept, proposal or project) or summative (taking lessons from a completed action or project at a later point in time or circumstance).
Feature A feature is a prominent or distinctive aspect, quality or characteristic. eMM's system provides several features (see Features).
Frequency the amount of times that an event occurs. Often used in conjunction with reach (see Reach and Frequency).
(Source:, June 13, 2012)
Glossary Every industry has it's jargon! This glossary is an alphabetical list of terms peculiar to the field of media monitoring, including definitions or explanations.
Graph A graphic, such as a line chart, plot, chart or diagram, shows the relationship between two or more variables, for instance, in visualising scientific data. The graphical analysis of eMM shows the number of mentions per day for each search term or profile (see Industries - Creation of Quantitative Analyses using eMM).
Hit Any time a piece of data matches the criteria you set. For example, each of the matches from a profile search is called a hit (see Features - Profiles).
Impact You have been influenced when you think in a way you wouldn't otherwise have thought or do something you wouldn't otherwise have done. There is currently no scalable facility to ascertain or infer who or what caused someone to change their mind or behaviour.
(Source:, June 13, 2012)
Broadcast media definitely have a huge impact on public opinions - greater than print and online media combined.
Industry the production of an economic good or service within an economy: a particular field, country, region, or economy viewed collectively, or one of these individually. A single industry is often named after its principal product. eMM understands that your industry has unique business needs and offers you and your business tailored solutions for streamlined media monitoring, automated alerting and more (see Industries).
Influence commonly used when analysing how much visual presence and ‘wow factor’ a piece of content carries. Is often measured in a number of different ways by different companies and commonly results in the use of a scoring system. Component impact measures might include size of headline, font, article, presence of imagery, position in publication etc.
(Source:, June 13, 2012)
Keyword A keyword is a significant or descriptive word, or a significant word or phrase, which occurs in a text more often than we would expect it to occur. A keyword is used as a reference point for finding other words or information, like audio or video clips. In eMM's system, you can set up different profiles, using keywords and combinations of keywords, to see all latest mentions of your interest in selected radio or TV channels (see Industries - Media Monitoring).
Language Language is the human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication, and a language is any specific example of such a system. Spoken language processing includes technologies like Speech Recognition, Speech Understanding, Speaker Recognition and Language Recognition. eMM covers news in the most common languages: English, Spanish, Arabic, French and German among others.
Latency Latency is the amount of time a message takes to traverse a system, e.g. the time difference between when information is aired/recorded and when it is processed. The delay (latency) is measured in seconds, depending on the system architecture and resources available.
What is media monitoring? Media monitoring is the activity of monitoring the output of print, online and broadcast media in order to reflect the media coverage of your topics of interests. Mass media traditionally have been limited to print media, so naturally the monitoring was also limited to print media. As radio and TV broadcasting were invented in the 20th century, media monitoring services expanded into the monitoring of these broadcast media, facilitated by the development of commercial audio and video tape recording systems.

Nowadays media monitoring is achieved by a combination of technologies, including audio and video recording, speech-to-text and text-recognition software. State-of-the-art media monitoring systems are completely digitized and information is automatically extracted using a combination of technologies, including digital audio and video recording, multimedia streaming, speech-to-text and text-recognition software. And all that happens in real time.

With eMM you can keep track of what is said about your company, your field of operations, your competitors, or other specified topics of interest (see Industries - Media Monitoring). Create alerts for your brand, your industry, your company, your name or your competitors (see Features - Profiles), and be informed in real time about any mentions in radio and TV (see Features - Alerts).

Media The plural of “medium” also short for “mass media” or “news media”. Publishers or broadcasters bringing news and information to a widespread audience. Media are a way of communication that reaches large numbers of people, such as radio, TV, newspapers. Media are divided into different forms of communication ideas such as digital, visual, sound etc.
Media Bias “Bias” is an inclination of temperament or outlook to present or hold a partial perspective at the expense of valid alternatives in reference to objects, people or groups. Anything biased generally is one-sided and therefore lacks a neutral point of view. “Media Bias” is the bias of journalists and news producers within the mass media in selection of events and stories that are reported and how they are covered.
Media Literacy Media Literacy is the ability to filter and to recognize the political, economic, institutional, personal or otherwise substantiated motivation of information in print, audio/visual or online media and to classify the potential knowledge for themselves. Media literacy is a repertoire of competences that enable people to analyze, evaluate, and create messages in a wide variety of media modes, genres and forms.
Monitoring The act of observing something and keeping a record of it.
Also see Broadcast Monitoring Service.
Measurement (also see Barcelona Principles) the action of measuring something; ascertaining the size, amount, or degree of something by using an instrument or a device, assessing the importance, effect or value of something.
(Source:, June 13, 2012)
News Information about recent events or happenings, especially as reported by newspapers, periodicals, radio or television, and also the presentation of such information in a newspaper or on a newscast. Breaking news - immediate media coverage as the event occurs. Information which is new, unusual and interesting or significant to the recipient. It is usually about people or related in some way to their lives. News is produced in a structured way by journalists.
News Cast A radio or television broadcast of the news.
News Monitoring eMM provides your real-time access to TV and radio news clips, as media monitoring is essential to making informed strategic (and public relations) decisions. eMM's international broadcast news monitoring service includes preview videos and automated transcripts of all delivered news clips, customizable to each client's specific needs.
You just need to select the keywords you want to monitor. Then eMM's media monitoring system automatically checks incoming news for those words and delivers preview videos of matching content either via email or on-line.
Profile A profiles describes a single word (keyword), phrase or query to be tracked on a regular basis.
Public Relations (PR) A marketing/business term meaning the practise of creating, promoting, or maintaining a favourable relationship (image) for an organization (or a brand) among the public. The function focuses on the two-way-communication between an organization and the public, and all approaches to media are valid. A variety of skills and tactics developed to create favorable opinion for a person, event, or product that ultimately supports the firm's bottom line. To achieve monitoring of your media coverage, you can either hire a public relations firm, or you can become one of eMM's customers - Contact us!
Query Query language is a computer language, used to make queries into databases and information systems. With eMM you can easily create queries to generate alerts for your brand, your industry, your company, your name or your competitors (see Features - Profiles).
Real Time Get the news when it breaks! eMedia Monitor offers the fastest state-of-the-art monitoring system to monitor radio and TV broadcasts. Information is automatically extracted using a combination of technologies, including digital audio and video recording, multimedia streaming, speech-to-text and text-recognition software. And all that happens in real time. You will receive audio or video clips for the topics of your interest online or via an e-mail alert typically on average 25-30 seconds after broadcast (see Features - Real-Time Alerts).
Reach a dis-aggregated number of people (or percentage of an audience) that have been exposed to content. ‘Reach’ differs from impressions, opportunities to see and eyeballs in that it counts the actual number of people exposed to coverage rather than the number of ‘opportunities’ to see the coverage. It is a widely mis-used term in the industry and should only be used when readership data has been dis-aggregated to take account of cross readership patterns.
(Source:, June 13, 2012)
Reach and Frequency a common metric quantifying campaign success predominantly used and accepted in advertising. It couples the reach metric with frequency which is the average number of times that each person has been reached, or exposed, to the content.
(Source:, June 13, 2012)
Return on investment (ROI) a performance measure used to evaluate the efficiency of an investment or to compare the efficiency of a number of different investments. To calculate ROI, the benefit (return) of an investment is divided by the cost of the investment; the result is expressed as a percentage or a ratio. For the avoidance of doubt, there is no such thing as ‘non-financial ROI’. If this phrase is invoked it may be to convey the importance of non-financial metrics and their vital role in business performance management.
(Source:, June 13, 2012)
Semantic Analysis computationally trying to determine the meaning of language, of a corpus.
(Source:, June 13, 2012)
Sentiment often used interchangeably with tone, but more precisely refers to the feelings the author is trying to convey.
(Source:, June 13, 2012)
Sentiment Analysis a subtopic of semantic analysis; computationally trying to determine the author’s emotional regard for or attitude towards something from the text alone; usually expressed on a 3- or 5-point ordinal scale (e.g., very unfavourable, unfavourable, neutral, favourable, very favourable).
(Source:, June 13, 2012)
Social Analytics the application of search, indexing, semantic analysis and business intelligence technologies to the task of identifying, tracking, listening to and participating in the distributed conversations about a particular brand, product or issue, with emphasis on quantifying the trend in each conversation's sentiment and influence.
(Source:, June 13, 2012)
What is Social Media? media that isn't traditional / ‘industrial’ / ‘mass’ media; media that is interactive.
(Source:, June 13, 2012)
What is Social Media Monitoring? Monitoring your social media activities on Facebook and twitter means listening to what people are saying about your brand, your industry, your company, your name or your competitors. Social Media Measurement means counting, calculating and quantifying those activities into useful numbers that will inform about your actions. Finding the right tools for that can save long hours of work! You think hard about your social media strategy, interesting postings and relevant links to create a solid online reputation. To know if your efforts are paying off will help you to adapt your posting strategy to better meet your goals. It all depends on what you want to track and measure. Due to the social media industry being relatively young compared to the conventional Media Monitoring, new tools and offerings are still emerging and evolving. Find out with eMM if anyone is listening to what you have to say!
Social Bookmarking Sometimes also referred to as “social bookmarketing”, is the term used for bookmarking sites on the web and sharing them with friends. It is similar to bookmarking a site on your PC, in the “favourites” of your web browser.
Text A written language is the representation of a language by means of a writing system. A written language text exists only as a complement to a specific spoken language. eMM offers a unified Speech-to-text and text-recognition software, that allows users to search for keywords or phrases in many different languages (see Features - Profiles).
Unified Can you imagine saving costs by reducing operators (HR) by 50% and still generating the same coverage? What if you could also get greater effectiveness? With eMM, a comprehensive and unified platform for media monitoring, you can achieve these results and more (see Reaping the benefits).
Video Clip Video clips are short clips of video files, usually part of a longer recording. With eMM you can edit and download video clips in DVD quality (see Features - Edit Clips).
Vocabulary Vocabulary is commonly defined as "all the words known and used by a particular person or group". eMM provides an exhaustive vocabulary in 7 languages.
Wiki A wiki is a website facilitating collaborative editing. The best known wiki is Wikipedia.
Worldwide applying or extending throughout the world, universal. eMM offers selective monitoring of broadcast media international, national, and regional in more than 40 countries in Africa, America, Australia, Asia, Europe (see our coverage map).



This page was last updated on 24 Mar 2015
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